Barnum Effect

Students were given personnality summaries and were asked to rate their accuracy. desite the summaries being identical, they rated them as highly accurate  average.

We often believe vague statements about personnalities are highly specific to just ourselves

See the full study here :

Forer, B. R. (1949). The fallacy of personal validation: a classroom demonstration of gullibility. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology44(1), 118,


Want to know more about biases?

Functional Fixedness

Misinformation Bias

In-Group Bias

Sunk Cost Fallacy